After its founding, the CPC pooled its strength on leading the workers’ movement and the peasants’ movement, and actively advanced cooperation with the Kuomintang (KMT), hence an upsurge of the Great Revolution throughout the country. It played a part in leading the Northern Expedition, which dealt a heavy blow to imperialism and the Northern warlords. Due to the betrayal of the Chiang Kai-shek clique and the Wang Ching-wei clique and the Right opportunist mistakes by the Party’s leading body, the Great Revolution failed. The dynamic revolutionary endeavor of the CPC left a glorious page in the history of the Chinese revolution, and provided the condition for the Party to lead the people in taking the revolutionary struggle to a new stage.
After the failure of the Great Revolution, the CPC held high the revolutionary banner independently, and led the Chinese people in waging the Agrarian Revolutionary War against imperialism and feudalism, founding the Red Army and rural revolutionary base areas, and blazing a new path of revolution, one of encircling the cities from the countryside and seizing political power through armed struggle. Due to the impact of “Left” dogmatic mistakes, the revolutionary cause suffered severe setbacks, and the Red Army was compelled to start the Long March. Through the Zunyi Meeting, the CPC realized a great turn in its history. Under the correct leadership of the CPC Central Committee and Mao Zedong, the Red Army ultimately achieved great victory of the Long March. After the September 18th Incident of 1931, local wars of resistance erupted. The CPC was the first to raise the banner of the resistance war, and advanced the Chinese people’s revolutionary struggle to a new stage of nationwide war of resistance against Japanese aggression.
The CPC worked earnestly to forge a nationwide United Front against Japanese aggression on the basis of KMT-CPC cooperation, and formulated and implemented the policy line of total resistance and the overall strategic guideline of fighting a protracted war. The CPC led the people’s army in conducting guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines, and established and developed democratic base areas of resisting Japanese aggression. It upheld the principle of maintaining independence and initiative within the United Front, and implemented the policy of developing progressive forces, winning over forces taking middle ground and isolating die-hard elements, and the policy of continuing the war of resistance and opposing compromise, upholding unity and opposing split, and standing for progress and opposing retrogression. Major efforts were made to strengthen Party building, and Mao Zedong Thought was identified as the Party’s guiding thought. The CPC stood as a main pillar in the whole nation’s war of resistance. The victory of the war of resistance against Japanese aggression marked a historic turning point toward rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
Following the victory of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, the CPC, representing the fundamental interests of the Chinese people, made tremendous efforts for peace and democracy. The KMT provoked the civil war, and the CPC led the army and civilians in liberated areas to crush offensives of KMT forces through resolute self-defense and actively promoted people’s democratic movements in KMT areas. As the situation evolved, the CPC commanded the People’s Liberation Army to move into strategic offensive, wage strategically decisive battles and stage strategic pursuit. The reactionary rule of the KMT was overthrown, the victory of the New Democratic Revolution was won, and preparation was made for the founding of New China. Thus the historical task of achieving national independence and people’s liberation was basically completed, and a new epoch was opened in the history of China.
After the founding of New China, Chinese Communists with Comrade Mao Zedong as their chief representative rallied and led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in pursuing socialist revolution. The basic socialist system was established. Arduous exploration was made for a socialist path suited to China’s national conditions, and the most extensive and profound social transformation in the history of the Chinese nation was brought about, laying the fundamental political precondition and institutional basis for all the development and progress of contemporary China, and providing valuable experience, theoretical groundwork and material basis for opening up socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historical period.
After the founding of New China, in the face of isolation, containment, encirclement and threats of hostile Western forces, the CPC led the Chinese people in the struggle to consolidate the people’s democratic government. After seven years of hard work, the land system transformation and other democratic reforms were completed in the main, and the victory of the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea was won. The national economy quickly recovered, a general guideline for the transition period was adopted, socialist transformation of private ownership of the means of production was basically completed, and the basic socialist system was established, marking a historic transformation from New Democracy to socialism.
After the establishment of the basic socialist system, the CPC led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in starting all-round, large-scale socialist construction. During the exploration process, despite serious twists and turns, the Party scored important theoretical achievements and tremendous accomplishments in socialist construction. Independent and fairly comprehensive industrial system and national economic system were by and large put in place, laying an important material and technological foundation for the development of socialist modernization. A great number of backbone professionals were fostered for development in political, economic, cultural and other fields, and important experience was gained in leading socialist construction.